Diet is the most important issue in diabetes treatment with the aim to ensure adequate nutrition, balanced in both quantity and quality to be able to properly regulate blood sugar and maintain weight. wish to ensure the patient is healthy enough to operate and work suitable for each individual.
Diabetes due to damage to the pancreas has 2 types (type)
Insulin-dependent body (type I): common in young people, thin and often have many complications.
Insulin-independent body (type II): common in people over 40, who are obese and have few complications.
With type I, proper diet combined with medication as directed by your doctor will help the disease to be stable and limit complications. Type II only requires appropriate diet in combination with regular physical activity to control blood sugar in the early stages of treatment.
The basic principle of a diabetic diet is to restrict carbohydrates (carbohydrates) to avoid postprandial hyperglycemia and to moderately restrict fats, especially saturated fatty acids, to avoid metabolic disorders. . The patient’s diet must be structured in such a way as to provide the human body with a relatively stable amount of sugar, and most importantly, moderation and rationality of the timing and quantity of meals at meals and snacks. .
Demand for energy and nutrients
Energy needs: diabetics also have the same energy needs as normal people. Demand increases or decreases and varies depending on each person’s situation. However, there are also similarities as:
Depending on age and gender
Depending on the type of job (heavy or light)
Depending on the condition (thin or fat)
The general energy demand for patients treated in hospitals is 25Kcal / kg / day.
Ratio between energy generating components:
Protein (protein): The amount of protein should reach 0.8g / kg / day for adults. If the diet is too high in protein, it is not best for patients with early kidney disease. In the diet of diabetes, the rate of energy due to protein should reach 15-20% of the diet energy.
Lipid (fat): Eat moderate fat and reduce animal fat because it is high in saturated fatty acids. Fat, especially saturated fatty acids, are more likely to cause atherosclerosis, but on the other hand they provide energy (offset the energy provided by carbohydrates) so eat unsaturated fatty acids. Many of vegetable oils such as sesame oil (sesame), soybean oil, sunflower oil … The ratio of energy due to fat should be 25% of the total dietary energy and should not exceed 30%. Dietary control also helps prevent atherosclerosis.
Gluxit (carbohydrates): In diabetes, blood sugar tends to skyrocket after eating but is not metabolized to provide energy for the body so the diet must limit carbohydrates (carbohydrates). . Complex carbohydrates in the form of seeds and tubers should be used. It is very important to limit sugars and foods high in sugar (cakes, candy, soft drinks …). The energy ratio provided by gluxite should reach 50-60% of the total dietary energy.
To make it easier for diabetics to choose foods, people divide foods into different types of carbohydrate content:
Type with content ≤ 5%: patients can use every day, including meats, fish, tofu (moderate amount), most fresh green vegetables and some less sweet fruits like : melon, watermelon, grapes, ripe … (unlimited use).
Types with a content of gluxit from 10-20%: should eat limited (can eat 2-3 times a week in moderate quantities) including some relatively sweet fruits such as tangerines, apples, breast milk, na, pink Siamese, ripe mango, soy milk, fruits (yellow beans, peas …)
Types with a content of ≥ 20%: need to abstain or minimize because when eaten, quickly increase blood sugar, including cakes, jams, candies, soft drinks and sweet fruits (jackfruit, dry cloth , dried longan …).
For people with diabetes should divide into small meals to avoid hyperglycemia after eating. Can be divided into 5-6 small meals a day. Patients with slow-acting insulin may experience hypoglycemia during the night, so it is advisable to offer a snack before bed.