Diabetes usually occurs after age 40 and is considered as an early stage of many other disorders such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, cataracts, retinal hemorrhage, coronary artery disease leading to heart failure, kidney damage.
Diabetes is a disorder of sugar metabolism, causing chronic hyperglycemia accompanied by disorders of lipid, protid and electrolyte metabolism. The late consequence of these metabolic disorders is damage to the microchips, small blood vessels and large blood vessels leading to the aforementioned accidents that can even be fatal.
Diet is the most important issue in the treatment of diabetes with the aim to ensure adequate and balanced supply of both the quantity and quality of nutritional components to be able to properly regulate blood sugar and maintain the desired weight to ensure the patient is healthy enough to operate and work suitable for each individual.
Nutrition for diabetics should ensure the following principles:
– Sufficient protein, fat, sugar powder, vitamins, mineral salts with a reasonable volume
– Do not raise blood sugar after meals and lower blood sugar at meals
– Limiting metabolic disorders
– Maintain a healthy weight. – Maintain daily physical activity
– In accordance with local eating habits
– Simple, convenient and not too expensive
Demand for energy and nutrients
People with diabetes also have the same energy needs as normal people. However, this demand increases or decreases depending on age, type of labor, fat or thin condition …
Glucid (carbohydrate): in diabetes, blood sugar tends to skyrocket after eating, so the basic thing in a patient’s diet is to limit glucide, but not too much reduction to muscle. can still maintain weight and function normally. The acceptable rate of energy for glucid is 50-60% (normal people 65%) of the total energy of the diet. It is recommended to use complex glucides including rice, potato tubers. Limit simple sugars and foods high in sugar (sugar, cake, jam, candy, soft drinks).
In order for diabetic patients to easily select food, people divide foods into different types of carbohydrate content:
– The type of gluxit content equal to or less than 5%: patients can use every day, including meats, fish, tofu (in moderate quantities), most fresh green vegetables and some fruits less sweet plants such as melon, plum, grapes, ripe … (can be used without restriction)
– The type of content of gluxit from 10% – 20%: should eat limited (3-4 times a week in moderate quantities) including some relatively sweet fruits such as tangerines, apples, breast milk, na, pink Siamese, ripe mango, soy milk, fruits (yellow beans, peas …).
– The type with more than 20% of carbohydrates: need to abstain or very limited to use because when eaten, it quickly increases blood sugar, including cakes, jams, candies, soft drinks and many sweet fruits (dried jackfruit, dry cloth, dry longan …). As for rice, which is a common food, it is necessary to control the amount of each meal (no more than 70g / main meal).
On the other hand also need to consider the glycemic index to choose food for patients with diabetes. The glycemic index is the 3-hour glycemic index after eating a certain amount of food, compared to 3 hours after eating a food that is considered to be the standard (white bread is 100%). Complex glucids with high starch content have a high glycemic index. Foods high in fiber, especially soluble fiber, have a low glycemic index.
Protein (protein): The amount of protein should reach 0.8 kg per day for adults. Diets with too much protein will not be good for the kidneys, but the amount of protein in the diet needs to be higher than the average person and should reach 15% – 20% of the diet energy (normal people are 12% – 14% ). Should use a combination of animal protein (meat, fish, eggs, milk) with vegetable protein (sesame, peanuts, beans) has just lowered the price that beans, peanuts have a lower glycemic index.
Lipid (fat): should eat moderately fat and reduce saturated fat (animal fat) because it is easy to cause atherosclerosis. But diabetic diets also need fat to provide energy (in return for the amount of energy provided by glucide is reduced). Eat saturated fatty acids found in seed oils (soybean oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil …). The ratio of energy to fat should be 25% of the total dietary energy (normal people are 18-20%) and should not exceed 30%.
Vitamins and trace elements: Need to ensure enough vitamins and trace elements (iron, iodine …). These ingredients are often found in fresh vegetables.
Fiber: Eat foods high in fiber (cellulose), especially soluble fiber. The fiber in rice is not well mixed; vegetable; tubers (fruits and vegetables); Potato is effective against constipation, reducing blood sugar and cholesterol after meals.
Number of meals: To ensure that postprandial hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are absent from the meal, it is recommended to split meals over the day based on the total energy for the whole day as follows: Breakfast: 10%. Breakfast in the morning: 10%. Lunch: 30%. Afternoon snack in the afternoon: 10%. Dinner: 30%. Evening snack (before bed): 10%
Prevention: Prevention of diabetes also needs attention. Need to have a reasonable, balanced diet, do not eat too much of high energy foods, limit the use of foods high in sugar (cakes, candy, jams, soft drinks), eat with a small amount of fruit with a high sugar content. Need to have an active lifestyle, avoid stagnation. Practice a healthy lifestyle, regular and reasonable physical activity. Keeping your weight at the standard level, not letting excess weight gain are positive factors to help prevent diabetes.